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ALERT! NOTE: This is a DistributionDocument. This document is generated, please do not change it. Put questions, error notes, and suggestions concerning the documentation of this topic in the comments section below. Use the Support web for problems you are having using TWiki.

Official list of stable TWiki functions for Plugin developers

This module defines official functions that TWiki plugins can use to interact with the TWiki engine and content.

Refer to EmptyPlugin and lib/TWiki/Plugins/EmptyPlugin.pm for a template plugin and documentation on how to write a plugin.

Plugins should only use functions published in this module. If you use functions in other TWiki libraries you might create a security hole and you will probably need to change your plugin when you upgrade TWiki.

Deprecated functions will still work in older code, though they should not be called in new plugins and should be replaced in older plugins as soon as possible.

The version of the TWiki::Func module is defined by the VERSION number of the TWiki::Plugins module, currently 6.00. This can be shown by the %PLUGINVERSION% TWiki variable, and accessed in code using $TWiki::Plugins::VERSION. The 'Since' field in the function documentation refers to $TWiki::Plugins::VERSION.

Notes on use of $TWiki::Plugins::VERSION 6.00 and later:

  • The version number is now aligned with the TWiki release version.
  • A TWiki-6.7.8 release will have a $TWiki::Plugins::VERSION = 6.78.
  • In an unlikely case where the patch number is 10 or larger, the patch number is added to the previous patch number. For example, TWiki-6.7.9 will have version 6.79, TWiki-6.7.10 will have 6.7910, and TWiki-6.7.11 will have 6.7911. This ensures that the version number can sort properly.
  • TWiki::Plugins::VERSION also applies to the plugin handlers. The handlers are documented in the EmptyPlugin, and that module indicates what version of TWiki::Plugins::VERSION it relates to.

A full history of the changes to this API can be found at the end of this topic.

This package has smell factor of 1

TWiki::I18N

Support for strings translation and language detection.

This package has smell factor of 2

TWiki::I18N::Extract

Support translatable strings extraction from TWiki topics and templates. Depends on Locale::Maketext::Extract (part of CPAN::Locale::Maketext::Lexicon).

This package has smell factor of 1

TWiki::If::Node

Node class for the result of an If statement parse

This package doesn't smell

TWiki::If::OP_isweb

This package doesn't smell

TWiki::If::Parser

Support for the conditions in %IF{} statements.

This package doesn't smell

TWiki::Infix::Error

Class of errors used with TWiki::Infix::Parser

This package doesn't smell

TWiki::Infix::Node

Base class for node types generated by Infix::Parser. You don't have to use it, but it may be useful.

This package doesn't smell

TWiki::Infix::Parser

A simple stack-based parser that parses infix expressions with nonary, unary and binary operators specified using an operator table.

Escapes are supported in strings, using backslash.

This package doesn't smell

TWiki::LineIterator

Iterator over the lines in a file

This package doesn't smell

TWiki::ListIterator

Iterator over a list

This package doesn't smell

TWiki::LoginManager::ApacheLogin

This is login manager that you can specify in the security setup section of configure. It instructs TWiki to cooperate with your web server (typically Apache) to require authentication information (username & password) from users. It requires that you configure your web server to demand authentication for scripts named "login" and anything ending in "auth". The latter should be symlinks to existing scripts; e.g., viewauth -> view, editauth -> edit, and so on.

See also TWikiUserAuthentication.

Subclass of TWiki::LoginManager; see that class for documentation of the methods of this class.

This package has smell factor of 1

TWiki::LoginManager

The package is also a Factory for login managers and also the base class for all login managers.

On its own, an object of this class is used when you specify 'none' in the security setup section of configure. When it is used, logins are not supported. If you want to authenticate users then you should consider TemplateLogin or ApacheLogin, which are subclasses of this class.

If you are building a new login manager, then you should write a new subclass of this class, implementing the methods marked as VIRTUAL. There are already examples in the lib/TWiki/LoginManager directory.

The class has extensive tracing, which is enabled by $TWiki::cfg{Trace}{LoginManager.pm}. The tracing is done in such a way as to let the perl optimiser optimise out the trace function as a no-op if tracing is disabled.

Here's an overview of how it works:

Early in TWiki::new, the login manager is created. The creation of the login manager does two things:

  1. If sessions are in use, it loads CGI::Session but doesn't initialise the session yet.
  2. Creates the login manager object

Slightly later in TWiki::new, loginManager->loadSession is called.

  1. Calls loginManager->getUser to get the username before the session is created
    • TWiki::LoginManager::ApacheLogin looks at REMOTE_USER (only for authenticated scripts)
    • TWiki::LoginManager::TemplateLogin just returns undef
  2. reads the TWIKISID cookie to get the SID (or the TWIKISID parameters in the CGI query if cookies aren't available, or IP2SID mapping if that's enabled).
  3. Creates the CGI::Session object, and the session is thereby read.
  4. If the username still isn't known, reads it from the cookie. Thus TWiki::LoginManager::ApacheLogin overrides the cookie using REMOTE_USER, and TWiki::LoginManager::TemplateLogin always uses the session.

Later again in TWiki::new, plugins are given a chance to override the username found from the loginManager.

The last step in TWiki::new is to find the user, using whatever user mapping manager is in place.

This package has smell factor of 8

TWiki::LoginManager::Session

Class to provide CGI::Session like infra-structure, compatible with TWiki Runtime Engine mechanisms other than CGI.

It inherits from CGI::Session and redefine methods that uses %ENV directly, replacing by calls to TWiki::Request object, that is passed to constructor.

It also redefines name method, to avoid creating CGI object.

This package doesn't smell

TWiki::LoginManager::TemplateLogin

This is a login manager that you can specify in the security setup section of configure. It provides users with a template-based form to enter usernames and passwords, and works with the PasswordManager that you specify to verify those passwords.

Subclass of TWiki::LoginManager; see that class for documentation of the methods of this class.

This package has smell factor of 2

TWiki::Mdrepo

This package doesn't smell

TWiki::Merge

Support for merging strings

This package has smell factor of 1

TWiki::Meta

All TWiki topics have data (text) and meta-data (information about the topic). Meta-data includes information such as file attachments, form fields, topic parentage etc. When TWiki loads a topic from the store, it represents the meta-data in the topic using an object of this class.

A meta-data object is a hash of different types of meta-data (keyed on the type, such as 'FIELD' and 'TOPICINFO').

Each entry in the hash is an array, where each entry in the array contains another hash of the key=value pairs, corresponding to a single meta-datum.

If there may be multiple entries of the same top-level type (i.e. for FIELD and FILEATTACHMENT) then the array has multiple entries. These types are referred to as "keyed" types. The array entries are keyed with the attribute 'name' which must be in each entry in the array.

For unkeyed types, the array has only one entry.

Pictorially,

  • TOPICINFO
    • author => '...'
    • date => '...'
    • ...
  • FILEATTACHMENT
    • [0] -> { name => '...' ... }
    • [1] -> { name => '...' ... }
  • FIELD
    • [0] -> { name => '...' ... }
    • [1] -> { name => '...' ... }

As well as the meta-data, the object also stores the web name, topic name and remaining text after meta-data extraction.

This package has smell factor of 2

TWiki::Net

Object that brokers access to network resources.

This package has smell factor of 4

TWiki::Net::HTTPResponse

Fakeup of HTTP::Response for use when LWP is not available. Only implements a small subset of the HTTP::Response methods:

code()
message()
header($field)
content()
is_error()
is_redirect()

See the documentation of HTTP::Response for information about the methods.

This package doesn't smell

TWiki::OopsException

Exception used to raise a request to redirect to an Oops URL.

An OopsException thrown anywhere in the code will redirect the browser to a url based on the oops script. oops requires the name of an oops template file from the templates directory. This file will be expanded and the parameter values passed to the exception instantiated. The result will be shown in the browser.

Plugins may throw TWiki::OopsException. For example:

use Error;

...

throw TWiki::OopsException( 'bathplugin',
                            def => 'toestuck',
                            web => $web,
                            topic => $topic,
                            params => [ 'bigtoe', 'hot tap' ] );

This package doesn't smell

TWiki::Plugin

This package has smell factor of 2

TWiki::Plugins

This module defines the singleton object that handles Plugins loading, initialization and execution.

This class uses Chain of Responsibility (GOF) pattern to dispatch handler calls to registered plugins.

This package doesn't smell

TWiki::Plurals

Handle conversion of plural topic names to singular form.

This package doesn't smell

TWiki::Prefs

The Prefs class is a singleton that implements management of preferences. It uses a stack of TWiki::Prefs::PrefsCache objects to store the preferences for global, web, user and topic contexts, and provides the means to look up preferences in these.

Preferences from different places stack on top of each other, so there are global preferences, then site, then web (and subweb and subsubweb), then topic, included topic and so on. Each level of the stack is tagged with a type identifier.

The module also maintains a separate of the preferences found in every topic and web it reads. This supports the lookup of preferences for webs and topics that are not on the stack, and must not be chained in (you can't allow a user to override protections from their home topic!)

This package doesn't smell

TWiki::Prefs::Parser

This Prefs-internal class is used to parse * Set and * Local statements from arbitrary text, and extract settings from meta objects. It is used by TopicPrefs to parse preference settings from topics.

This class does no validation or duplicate-checking on the settings; it simply returns the recognized settings in the order it sees them in.

This package has smell factor of 1

TWiki::Prefs::PrefsCache

The PrefsCache package holds a cache of topics that have been read in, using the TopicPrefs class. These functions manage that cache.

We maintain 2 hashes of values:

  • {locals} Contains all locals at this level. Locals are values that only apply when the current topic is the topic where the local is defined. The variable names are decorated with the locality where they apply.
  • {values} contains all sets, locals, and all values inherited from the parent level

As each cache level is built, the values are copied down from the parent cache level. This sounds monstrously inefficient, but in fact perl does this a lot better than doing a multi-level lookup when a value is referenced. This is especially important when many prefs lookups may be done in a session, for example when searching.

This package doesn't smell

TWiki::Query::HoistREs

Static functions to extract regular expressions from queries. The REs can be used in caching stores that use the TWiki standard inline meta-data representation to pre-filter topic lists for more efficient query matching.

See Store/RcsFile.pm for an example of usage.

This package doesn't smell

TWiki::Query

A Query object is a representation of a query over the TWiki database.

Fields are given by name, and values by strings or numbers. Strings should always be surrounded by 'single-quotes'. Numbers can be signed integers or decimals. Single quotes in values may be escaped using backslash (\).

See QuerySearch for details of the query language. At the time of writing only a subset of the entire query language is supported, for use in searching.

A query object implements the evaluate method as its general contract with the rest of the world. This method does a "hard work" evaluation of the parser tree. Of course, smarter Store implementations should be able to do it better....

This package has smell factor of 2

TWiki::Query::Parser

Parser for queries

This package doesn't smell

TWiki::Render

This module provides most of the actual HTML rendering code in TWiki.

This package has smell factor of 21

TWiki::Request

Class to encapsulate request data.

Fields:

  • action action requested (view, edit, save, ...)
  • cookies hashref whose keys are cookie names and values are CGI::Cookie objects
  • headers hashref whose keys are header name
  • request_method request method (GET, HEAD, POST)
  • param hashref of parameters, both query and body ones
  • param_list arrayref with parameter names in received order
  • path_info path_info of request (eg. /WebName/TopciName)
  • remote_address Client's IP address
  • remote_user Remote HTTP authenticated user
  • secure Boolean value about use of encryption
  • server_port Port that the webserver listens on
  • uploads hashref whose keys are parameter name of uploaded files
  • uri the request uri

This package has smell factor of 1

TWiki::Response

Class to encapsulate response data.

Fields: * status - response status * headers - hashref to response headers * body - response body * cookies - hashref to response cookies

This package doesn't smell

TWiki::Sandbox

This object provides an interface to the outside world. All calls to system functions, or handling of file names, should be brokered by this object.

NOTE: TWiki creates a singleton sandbox that is shared by all TWiki runs under a single mod_perl instance. If any TWiki run modifies the sandbox, that modification will carry over in to subsequent runs. Be very, very careful!

This package has smell factor of 4

TWiki::Search

This module implements all the search functionality.

This package has smell factor of 12

TWiki::Store

This module hosts the generic storage backend. This module provides the interface layer between the "real" store provider - which is hidden behind a handler - and the rest of the system. it is responsible for checking for topic existance, access permissions, and all the other general admin tasks that are common to all store implementations.

This module knows nothing about how the data is actually stored - that knowledge is entirely encapsulated in the handlers.

The general contract for methods in the class requires that errors are signalled using exceptions. TWiki::AccessControlException is used for access control exceptions, and Error::Simple for all other types of error.

This package has smell factor of 15

TWiki::Store::QueryAlgorithms::BruteForce

Default brute-force query algorithm

Has some basic optimisation: it hoists regular expressions out of the query to use with grep, so we can narrow down the set of topics that we have to evaluate the query on.

Not sure exactly where the breakpoint is between the costs of hoisting and the advantages of hoisting. Benchmarks suggest that it's around 6 topics, though this may vary depending on disk speed and memory size. It also depends on the complexity of the query.

This package doesn't smell

TWiki::Store::RcsFile

This class is PACKAGE PRIVATE to Store, and should never be used from anywhere else. It is the base class of implementations of stores that manipulate RCS format files.

The general contract of the methods on this class and its subclasses calls for errors to be signalled by Error::Simple exceptions.

Refer to Store.pm for models of usage.

This package has smell factor of 11

TWiki::Store::RcsLite

This package does not publish any methods. It implements the virtual methods of the TWiki::Store::RcsFile superclass.

Simple replacement for RCS. Doesn't support:

  • branches
  • locking
Neither of which are used (or needed) by TWiki.

This module doesn't know anything about the content of the topic

There is one of these object for each file stored under RCSLite.

This object is PACKAGE PRIVATE to Store, and should NEVER be used from anywhere else.

FIXME:

  • need to tidy up dealing with \n for differences
  • still have difficulty on line ending at end of sequences, consequence of doing a line based diff

File format

rcstext    ::=  admin {delta}* desc {deltatext}*
admin      ::=  head {num};
                { branch   {num}; }
                access {id}*;
                symbols {sym : num}*;
                locks {id : num}*;  {strict  ;}
                { comment  {string}; }
                { expand   {string}; }
                { newphrase }*
delta      ::=  num
                date num;
                author id;
                state {id};
                branches {num}*;
                next {num};
                { newphrase }*
desc       ::=  desc string
deltatext  ::=  num
                log string
                { newphrase }*
                text string
num        ::=  {digit | .}+
digit      ::=  0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9
id         ::=  {num} idchar {idchar | num }*
sym        ::=  {digit}* idchar {idchar | digit }*
idchar     ::=  any visible graphic character except special
special    ::=  $ | , | . | : | ; | @
string     ::=  @{any character, with @ doubled}*@
newphrase  ::=  id word* ;
word       ::=  id | num | string | :
Identifiers are case sensitive. Keywords are in lower case only. The sets of keywords and identifiers can overlap. In most environments RCS uses the ISO 8859/1 encoding: visible graphic characters are codes 041-176 and 240-377, and white space characters are codes 010-015 and 040.

Dates, which appear after the date keyword, are of the form Y.mm.dd.hh.mm.ss, where Y is the year, mm the month (01-12), dd the day (01-31), hh the hour (00-23), mm the minute (00-59), and ss the second (00-60). Y contains just the last two digits of the year for years from 1900 through 1999, and all the digits of years thereafter. Dates use the Gregorian calendar; times use UTC.

The newphrase productions in the grammar are reserved for future extensions to the format of RCS files. No newphrase will begin with any keyword already in use.

Revisions consist of a sequence of 'a' and 'd' edits that need to be applied to rev N+1 to get rev N. Each edit has an offset (number of lines from start) and length (number of lines). For 'a', the edit is followed by length lines (the lines to be inserted in the text). For example:

d1 3 means "delete three lines starting with line 1 a4 2 means "insert two lines at line 4' xxxxxx is the new line 4 yyyyyy is the new line 5

This package has smell factor of 2

TWiki::Store::RcsWrap

This package does not publish any methods. It implements the virtual methods of the TWiki::Store::RcsFile superclass.

Wrapper around the RCS commands required by TWiki. There is one of these object for each file stored under RCS.

This package has smell factor of 3

TWiki::Store::SearchAlgorithms::Forking

Forking implementation of the RCS cache search.

This package has smell factor of 3

TWiki::Store::SearchAlgorithms::PurePerl

Pure perl implementation of the RCS cache search.

This package doesn't smell

TWiki::Templates

Support for the TWiki template language.

This package has smell factor of 2

TWiki::Time

Time handling functions.

This package has smell factor of 5

TWiki::UI::ChangeForm

Service functions used by the UI packages

This package doesn't smell

TWiki::UI::Copy

UI delegate for copy function

This package doesn't smell

TWiki::UI

Coordinator of execution flow and service functions used by the UI packages

This package doesn't smell

TWiki::UI::Edit

Edit command handler

This package has smell factor of 1

TWiki::UI::Manage

UI functions for web, topic and user management

This package has smell factor of 4

TWiki::UI::MdrepoUI

UI delegate for mdrepo function

This package doesn't smell

TWiki::UI::Oops

UI delegate for oops function

This package doesn't smell

TWiki::UI::RDiff

UI functions for diffing.

This package has smell factor of 12

TWiki::UI::Register

User registration handling.

This package has smell factor of 8

TWiki::UI::Rest

UI delegate for REST interface

This package has smell factor of 1

TWiki::UI::Save

UI delegate for save function

This package has smell factor of 1

TWiki::UI::Search

UI functions for searching.

This package has smell factor of 3

TWiki::UI::Statistics

Statistics extraction and presentation

This package has smell factor of 1

TWiki::UI::Upload

UI delegate for attachment management functions

This package has smell factor of 2

TWiki::UI::View

UI delegate for view function

This package has smell factor of 4

TWiki::UserMapping

This is a virtual base class (a.k.a an interface) for all user mappers. It is not useable as a mapping in TWiki - use the BaseUserMapping for default behaviour.

User mapping is the process by which TWiki maps from a username (a login name) to a display name and back. It is also where groups are maintained.

See TWiki::Users::BaseUserMapping and TWiki::Users::TWikiUserMapping for the default implementations of this interface.

If you want to write a user mapper, you will need to implement the methods described in this class.

User mappings work by mapping both login names and display names to a canonical user id. This user id is composed from a prefix that defines the mapper in use (something like 'BaseUserMapping_' or 'LdapUserMapping_') and a unique user id that the mapper uses to identify the user.

The null prefix is reserver for the TWikiUserMapping for compatibility with old TWiki releases.

Note: in all the following documentation, $cUID refers to a canonical user id.

This package has smell factor of 1

TWiki::Users::ApacheHtpasswdUser

Password manager that uses Apache::HtPasswd to manage users and passwords.

Subclass of TWiki::Users::Password . See documentation of that class for descriptions of the methods of this class.

Duplicates functionality of =TWiki::Users::HtPasswdUser=; provided mainly as an example of how to write a new password manager.

This package has smell factor of 1

TWiki::Users::BaseUserMapping

User mapping is the process by which TWiki maps from a username (a login name) to a display name and back. It is also where groups are maintained.

The BaseMapper provides support for a small number of predefined users. No registration - this is a read only usermapper. It uses the mapper prefix 'BaseUserMapping_'.

Users

Groups

This package has smell factor of 2

TWiki::Users

This package provides services for the lookup and manipulation of login and wiki names of users, and their authentication.

It is a Facade that presents a common interface to the User Mapping and Password modules. The rest of the core should only use the methods of this package, and should never call the mapping or password managers directly.

TWiki uses the concept of a login name which is used to authenticate a user. A login name maps to a wiki name that is used to identify the user for display. Each login name is unique to a single user, though several login names may map to the same wiki name.

Using this module (and the associated plug-in user mapper) TWiki supports the concept of groups. Groups are sets of login names that are treated equally for the purposes of access control. Group names do not have to be wiki names, though it is helpful for display if they are.

Internally in the code TWiki uses something referred to as a _canonical user id_ or just user id. The user id is also used externally to uniquely identify the user when (for example) recording topic histories. The user id is usually just the login name, but it doesn't need to be. It just has to be a unique 7-bit alphanumeric and underscore string that can be mapped to/from login and wiki names by the user mapper.

The canonical user id should never be seen by a user. On the other hand, core code should never use anything but a canonical user id to refer to a user.

Terminology

  • A login name is the name used to log in to TWiki. Each login name is assumed to be unique to a human. The Password module is responsible for authenticating and manipulating login names.
  • A canonical user id is an internal TWiki representation of a user. Each canonical user id maps 1:1 to a login name.
  • A wikiname is how a user is displayed. Many user ids may map to a single wikiname. The user mapping module is responsible for mapping the user id to a wikiname.
  • A group id represents a group of users and other groups. The user mapping module is responsible for mapping from a group id to a list of canonical user ids for the users in that group.
  • An email is an email address asscoiated with a login name. A single login name may have many emails.

NOTE:

  • wherever the code references $cUID, its a canonical_id
  • wherever the code references $group, its a group_name
  • $name may be a group or a cUID

This package has smell factor of 7

TWiki::Users::HtPasswdUser

Support for htpasswd and htdigest format password files.

Subclass of TWiki::Users::Password . See documentation of that class for descriptions of the methods of this class.

This package has smell factor of 3

TWiki::Users::Password

Base class of all password handlers. Default behaviour is no passwords, so anyone can be anyone they like.

The methods of this class should be overridded by subclasses that want to implement other password handling methods.

This package doesn't smell

TWiki::Users::TWikiUserMapping

The User mapping is the process by which TWiki maps from a username (a login name) to a wikiname and back. It is also where groups are defined.

By default TWiki maintains user topics and group topics in the Main that define users and group. These topics are

  • TWikiUsers - stores a mapping from usernames to TWiki names
  • WikiName - for each user, stores info about the user
  • GroupNameGroup - for each group, a topic ending with "Group" stores a list of users who are part of that group.

Many sites will want to override this behaviour, for example to get users and groups from a corporate database.

This class implements the basic TWiki behaviour using topics to store users, but is also designed to be subclassed so that other services can be used.

Subclasses should be named 'XxxxUserMapping' so that configure can find them.

This package has smell factor of 14


There were a total of 219 smells



Comments & Questions about this Distribution Document Topic

This topic starts somewhere in the middle... I thought it was because it used to include its content from outdated TWiki04 and changed this to TWiki06x00, but this didn't help: The problem is an actual STARTINCLUDE in Func.pm. This is harmless when the topic is viewed as TWiki06x00.SourceCode, but fatal here where included.

I wonder... is it intentional to have this topic (and the list of module docs like TWiki.TWikiDotPm, which is outdated as well) as part of the distribution? They are not listed in the MANIFEST, nor present on the Bugs web and not under version control. They are only relevant for Perl developers, not for TWiki users.

-- Harald Jörg - 2015-05-16

Please use the Support forum if you have questions about TWiki features. This comment section is about the documentation of this topic.
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Topic revision: r3 - 2015-05-16 - HaraldJoerg
 
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