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TWiki Editing Shorthand

These instructions are for contributors who prefer to use the Raw Edit over the default WYSIWYG editor.

Formatting Command: You write: You get:
Paragraphs:
Blank lines will create new paragraphs.
1st paragraph

2nd paragraph

1st paragraph

2nd paragraph

Headings:
Three or more dashes at the beginning of a line, followed by plus signs and the heading text. One plus creates a top level heading, two pluses a second level heading, etc. The maximum heading depth is 6.

  • You can create a table of contents with the %TOC% variable.
  • If you want to exclude a heading from the TOC, put !! after the ---+.
  • Empty headings are allowed and won't appear in the table of contents.
---++ Sushi
---+++ Maguro
---+++!! Not in TOC

Sushi

Maguro

Not in TOC

Bold Text:
Words get shown in bold by enclosing them in * asterisks.
*Bold*

Bold

Italic Text:
Words get shown in italic by enclosing them in _ underscores.
_Italic_

Italic

Bold Italic:
Words get shown in bold italic by enclosing them in __ double-underscores.
__Bold italic__

Bold italic

Fixed Font:
Words get shown in fixed font by enclosing them in = equal signs.
=Fixed font=

Fixed font

Bold Fixed Font:
Words get shown in bold fixed font by enclosing them in double equal signs.
==Bold fixed==

Bold fixed

  • You can follow the closing bold, italic, or other (* _ __ = ==) indicator with normal punctuation, such as commas and full stops.
  • Make sure there is no space between the text and the indicators.
  • All words enclosed by the indicators need to be on the same line.
_This works_,
_this does not _
_this fails
too_

This works,
_this does not _
_this fails too_

Separator (Horizontal Rule):
Three or more three dashes at the beginning of a line..
-------


Bulleted List:
Multiple of three spaces, an asterisk, and another space.
  • For all the list types, you can break a list item over several lines by indenting lines after the first one by at least 3 spaces.
   * level 1
      * level 2
   * back on 1
   * A bullet
     broken over
     three lines
   * last bullet

  • level 1
    • level 2
  • back on 1
  • A bullet broken over three lines
  • last bullet
Icon List:
Multiple of three spaces, an asterisk, text icon:name and another space.
   * icon:tip Icon list
      * icon:led-red Full
      * icon:led-green OK
   * icon:unchecked Item 1
   * icon:checked Item 2
   * icon:empty No bullet

  • Icon list
    • Full
    • OK
  • Item 1
  • Item 2
  • No bullet
Numbered List:
Multiple of three spaces, a type character, a dot, and another space. Several types are available besides a number:
Type Generated Style Sample Sequence
1. Arabic numerals 1, 2, 3, 4...
A. Uppercase letters A, B, C, D...
a. Lowercase letters a, b, c, d...
I. Uppercase Roman Numerals I, II, III, IV...
i. Lowercase Roman Numerals i, ii, iii, iv...
   1. Sushi
   1. Dim Sum
   1. Fondue

   A. Sushi
   A. Dim Sum
   A. Fondue

   i. Sushi
   i. Dim Sum
   i. Fondue

  1. Sushi
  2. Dim Sum
  3. Fondue

  1. Sushi
  2. Dim Sum
  3. Fondue

  1. Sushi
  2. Dim Sum
  3. Fondue
Definition List:
Three spaces, a dollar sign, the term, a colon, a space, followed by the definition.

Deprecated syntax: Three spaces, the term with no spaces, a colon, a space, followed by the definition.

   $ Sushi: Japan
   $ Dim Sum: S.F.

Sushi
Japan
Dim Sum
S.F.
Table:
Each row of the table is a line containing of one or more cells. Each cell starts and ends with a vertical bar '|'. Any spaces at the beginning of a line are ignored.
  • | *bold* | header cell with text in asterisks
  • |   center-aligned   | cell with at least two, and equal number of spaces on either side
  • |      right-aligned | cell with more spaces on the left
  • | 2 colspan || and multi-span columns with multiple |'s right next to each other
  • |^| cell with caret indicating follow-up row of multi-span rows
  • |>> ... <<| cell enclosed in double-square brackets can span multiple lines - useful for bullets and nested tables
  • You can split rows over multiple lines by putting a backslash '\' at the end of each line
  • Contents of table cells wrap automatically as determined by the browser
  • Use %VBAR% or &#124; to add | characters in tables.
  • Use %CARET% or &#94; to add ^ characters in tables.
  • The TablePlugin provides the |^| multiple-span row functionality, |>> ... <<| multi-line syntax, and additional rendering features
| *L* | *C* | *R* |
| A2 |  B2  |  C2 |
| A3 |  B3  |  C3 |
| multi span |||
| A5-7 |  5  |  5 |
|^| six | six |
|^| seven | seven |
| split\
  | over\
  | 3 lines |
| A9 |>>
 | Nested |
 | table |
<<|  C9 |

L C R
A2 B2 C2
A3 B3 C3
multi span
A5-7 5 5
six six
seven seven
split over 3 lines
| A9 |>>
Nested
table
<<| C9 |
WikiWord Links:
CapitalizedWordsStuckTogether (or WikiWords) will produce a link automatically if preceded by whitespace or parenthesis.
  • If you want to link to a topic in a different web write Otherweb.TopicName.
  • To link to a topic in a subweb write Otherweb.Subweb.TopicName.
  • The link label excludes the name of the web, e.g. only the topic name is shown. As an exception, the name of the web is shown for the WebHome topic.
  • Dots '.' are used to separate webs and subwebs from topic names and therefore cannot be used in topic names.
  • Links can be prevented with an ! exclamation point prefix.

It's generally a good idea to use the TWikiVariables %SYSTEMWEB% and %USERSWEB% instead of TWiki and Main.

WebStatistics

Sandbox.WebNotify

Sandbox.WebHome

Sandbox.Subweb.TopicName

!EscapedWikiWord

WebStatistics

WebNotify

Sandbox

TopicName

EscapedWikiWord

Anchors:
You can define a reference inside a TWiki topic (called an anchor name) and link to that. To define an anchor write #AnchorName at the beginning of a line. The anchor name must be a WikiWord of no more than 32 characters. To link to an anchor name use the [[MyTopic#MyAnchor]] syntax. You can omit the topic name if you want to link within the same topic.
[[WikiWord#NotThere]]

[[#MyAnchor][Jump]]

#MyAnchor
To here

WikiWord#NotThere

Jump

To here

External Links:
URLs starting with file, ftp, gopher, http, https, irc, mailto, news, nntp and telnet are linked automatically if preceded by whitespace or parenthesis. External links are indicated with a trailing External link icon, and open up in a new browser tab or window; the behavior of both can be set in configure or preferences variables (see TWikiExternalLinks for details). Links can be prevented with an ! exclamation point prefix.
http://twiki.org

https://google.com

!http://escaped-link

http://twiki.org

https://google.com

http://escaped-link

Forced Links:
Use double square brackets to create forced links: Write [[link]] or [[link][label]] to force a link. Use the former for singleton words and if automatic linking is disabled. Use the latter one to specify a link label other than the link. For the link, you can use internal link references (e.g. WikiWords) and URLs (e.g. http://TWiki.org/).
  • URL parameters can follow a WikiWord
  • Anchor names can be added to create a link to a specific place in a document.
  • To "escape" double square brackets that would otherwise make a link, prefix the leading left square bracket with an exclamation point.
  • The topic title instead of the topic name is shown for [[WikiWord]] links if the SHOWTOPICTITLELINK preferences setting is enabled.
[[WikiWord]]

[[WikiWord?n1=v1;n2=v2]]

[[WikiWord#TheAnchor]]

[[WikiWord?n=5#TheAnchor]]

[[WikiSyntax][wiki syntax]]

[[http://gnu.org/][GNU]]

[[Singleton]]

escaped:
![[WikiSyntax]]

WikiWord

WikiWord?n1=v1;n2=v2

WikiWord#TheAnchor

WikiWord?n=5#TheAnchor

wiki syntax

GNU

Singleton

escaped: [[WikiSyntax]]

Topic Title Links:
Use double square brackets and a plus sign to create links with topic title: Write [[+TopicName]] or [[+Web.TopicName]] to show the topic title instead of the topic name. The topic title is defined by the form field named "Title", the topic preferences setting named TITLE, or the topic name if neither exists.
  • An alternative syntax is [[TopicName][$topictitle]] or [[Web.TopicName][$topictitle]].
[[+BugN1234]]

[[+Bugs.BugN1234]]

[[BugN1234][$topictitle]]

The sky is falling

The sky is falling

The sky is falling

Refer to Topic or Attachment Name in Double Square Brackets:
$name in the link label in the double square brackets notation refers to the topic name or the attachment file name.

$name is used for consistency with QuerySearch, in which name refers to the topic name and the attachment file name, respectively.

[[%SYSTEMWEB%.WikiWord\
#TheSyntax][$name]]

[[%PUBURL%/%WEB%/WabiSabi\
/wabisabi.gif][$name]]

$name

$name

Prevent a Link:
Prevent a WikiWord from being linked by prepending it with an exclamation point.
!RedHat
RedHat
Disable Links:
You can disable automatic linking of WikiWords by surrounding text with <noautolink> and </noautolink> tags.
  • It is possible to turn off all auto-linking with a NOAUTOLINK preferences setting.
 <noautolink>
 RedHat & SuSE
 </noautolink>

RedHat & SuSE

Mailto Links:
E-mail addresses are linked automatically. To create e-mail links that have more descriptive link text, specify subject lines or message bodies, or omit the e-mail address, you can write [[mailto:user@domain][descriptive text]].
a@b.com

[[mailto:a@b.com]\
[Mail]]

[[mailto:?subject=\
Hi][Hi]]

a@bPLEASENOSPAM.com

Mail

Hi

Twitter Links:
@twitter IDs are linked automatically. The link rule is defined by the {Links}{TwitterUrlPattern} configure setting.
@twiki

!@escaped

@twiki

@escaped

Verbatim Text:
Surround code excerpts and other formatted text with <verbatim> and </verbatim> tags.
  • The verbatim tag disables HTML code. Use <pre> and </pre> tags instead if you want the HTML code within the tags to be interpreted.
  • Preferences variables (* Set NAME = value) are set within verbatim tags.
<verbatim>
class CatAnimal {
  void purr() {
    <code here>
  }
}
</verbatim>
class CatAnimal {
  void purr() {
    <code here>
  }
}
Literal Text:
TWiki generates HTML code from TWiki shorthand. Experts surround anything that must be output literally in the HTML code, without the application of TWiki shorthand rules, with <literal>..</literal> tags.
  • Any HTML within literal tags must be well formed i.e. all tags must be properly closed before the end of the literal block.
  • TWiki Variables are expanded within literal blocks.
<literal>
| Not | A | Table |
<literal>
| Not | A | Table |
Protected Text:
Experts protect text from mangling by WYSIWYG editors using <sticky>..</sticky> tags. Sticky tags don't have any effect on normal topic display; they are only relevant when content has to be protected from a WYSIWYG editor (usually because it isn't well-formed HTML, or because it is HTML that WYSIWYG would normally filter out or modify). Protected content appears as plain text in the WYSIWYG editor.
<sticky>
<div>
This div is required
</div>
</sticky>
This div is required

Related topics: WikiSyntax, WikiWord, WikiNotation, TextFormattingRules, TWikiRenderingShortcut, TWikiShorthand



Comments & Questions about this Distribution Document Topic

The new TWiki version (4.2.0) includes two additional lines that I added in this document ( Literal content and Protected content). Besides the example for protected contents did not have a closing

&lt;/sticky&gt;

but another opening one. This was corrected as well.

-- SebastianKlus - 20 Feb 2008

Please use the Support forum if you have questions about TWiki features. This comment section is about the documentation of this topic.
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Topic revision: r11 - 2016-06-25 - PeterThoeny
 
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